Direct Speech - When we quote a speaker's actual words, it is called Direct Speech.
Indirect Speech - When we report what a speaker said without quoting his exact words, then it is called Indirect Speech.
Direct: Rahul said, "I am very happy today."
Indirect: Rahul said that he was very happy that day.
While changing the above direct speech into Indirect, certain changes have been made. They are as follows:
1) In Direct Speech, we have used inverted commas to mark off the actual words of the speaker, whereas in Indirect Speech, we do not use inverted commas.
2) The conjunction that
before the Indirect statement is used.
3) The pronoun I
is changed to he
4) The verb am
is changed to was
5) The adverb today
is changed to that day
.Rules for changing Direct Speech into Indirect
When the principal verb is in the Past Tense, all Present Tenses of the Direct are changed into the corresponding Past Tenses.
Direct: He said, "My sister is reading books."
Indirect: He said that his sister was reading books.
a) A simple present
becomes a simple past
b) A present continuous
becomes a past continuous
c) A present perfect
becomes a past perfect
Please note that the shall
of the Future tense is changed into should
. The will
of the Future tense is changed into would
Also, the Simple Past
in the Direct becomes the Past Perfect
in the Indirect.
Direct: He said, "The cow died in the morning."
Indirect: He said that the cow had died in the morning.
The tenses may not change if the statement is still relevant or if it is an universal truth.
Direct: The teacher said, "The earth goes round the sun."
Indirect: The teacher said the earth goes/ went round the sun.
In reporting commands and requests, the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verb expressing command or request.
Direct: John said to him, "Please wait till I return."
Indirect: John requested him to wait till he returned.
In reporting exclamations and wishes, the Indirect Speech is introduced by some verb expressing exclamation or wish.
Direct: She said, "Alas! I have lost my parents."
Indirect: She exclaimed sadly that she had lost her parents.
Labels: English Grammar